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Peripheral Nerve Blocks

The term peripheral nerve is synonymous with the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The main function of the PNS is to connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the limbs and organs. The PNS is divided into two systems — the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system.

The somatic nervous system is responsible for controlling movement (motor function) and also for receiving sensation input from the periphery (sensory). These sensations include pain signals from the periphery to the spinal cord and ultimately, to the brain. In certain painful conditions such as cancer pain, the pain signals from these nerves can be blocked to provide relief to patients.

The most common reason for peripheral nerve blocks is when pain medication escalation is limited by side-effects. Some patients, however, will benefit from one component of their pain being relieved by a simple peripheral nerve block as part of a comprehensive, multi-pronged plan.

When these nerve blocks are given in combination with other therapy, including pain medications, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, their use may allow significant relief from pain while avoiding side-effects from escalation of pain medications.

How It Works

Peripheral nerve blocks can be performed either with the assistance of landmarks that can be easily felt by touch (palpation) or under imaging guidance (a live x-ray or ultrasound machine) to increase the accuracy of this procedure. 

  • During the procedure, you will be asked to lie in a position to facilitate the procedure. 
  • The targeted area of your body will be prepped with a cleaning solution, and then a sterile drape will be placed. 
  • Your JLR Center for Pain physician will anesthetize your skin with numbing medicine.
  • Next, a guide needle will be advanced toward the intended target area.
  • A local anesthetic and sometimes a steroid (cortisone) will be administered in close proximity to the nerve to block signals from reaching the brain.The cortisone serves as an anti-inflammatory.
  • After the procedure, a dressing is then placed over the place of needle entry.

Risks

Similar to any other procedure or medication, there are low potential risks of infection, bleeding, allergic reaction, and prolonged increases in pain. X-ray guidance and sterile techniques used by your physician throughout the procedure will significantly reduce these risks.